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By Leonardo Gabrielli, Stefano Squartini
This e-book offers a complete evaluate of the cutting-edge in Networked track functionality (NMP) and a old survey of machine tune networking. It introduces present technical developments in NMP and technical concerns but to be addressed. It additionally lists instant conversation protocols and compares those to the necessities of NMP. sensible use instances and developments also are discussed.
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Additional resources for Wireless Networked Music Performance
After being received all the packets are issued to the hardware buffer and are, thus, delayed by the hardware buffer blocking time. 7 A/D and D/A Clock Synchronization Another technical issue faced in NMP is the nonideal behavior of the audio card hardware clock. Two hardware clocks, notwithstanding their precision, can drift with respect to each other. For this reason several digital audio networking technologies transmit a master clock that is received and reconstructed through a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) by the receiver, similarly several inter-chip communication bus or digital communication technologies.
In Fig. , a packet affected by a random delay and arriving in the range ti < t < t I R Q2 − ε (with ε very small) is played back in the same audio card time slot. Provided that the receiver incorporates a packet reordering mechanism and the packets are provided with a counter by the transmitter, a packet arriving between Ti and TI R Q2 can be played back properly. Furthermore, latency is insensitive of the exact arrival time, due to quantization of time in periods. In Fig. 8 an example transmission where the latency is initially set by the transmission delay imposed by packet 1, incur into dropout of packet 4 when the network delay for that packet exceeds the buffering capacity of the receiver.
Several synchronization mechanisms are proposed for wireless networks. , a mutual synchronization mechanism between two or more ends is proposed employing a control loop that minimizes the error between two time functions. This mechanism, called CS-MNS, is an absolute synchronization mechanism. In the audio case, however, the time function generally starts when the audio process is started. Relative time synchronization is already sufficient since two time functions may have different offset if two audio processes are started independently.
Wireless Networked Music Performance by Leonardo Gabrielli, Stefano Squartini