Drilling Fluid Engineering - download pdf or read online
By P. Skalle
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Roughness. 49 Drilling Fluid Engineering Hydraulic friction in the circulating system Roughness for new pipe materials is shown in Table 4-2. Table 4-2: Equivalent roughness calculated on basis of experimental data. The uncertainty is +/- 50 %. 0DWHULDO &RQFUHWH :RRG &DVW,URQ *DOYDQL]HGLURQ &RPPHUFLDOVWHHO 'UDZQVWHHOWXELQJ *ODVV 5RXJKQHVVHPP ± ± VPRRWK For non-Newtonian fluids the effective viscosity should be applied. It has been found that for Bingham fluids the transition to turbulent flow is insufficiently determined by the Reynolds number.
Methods in group 1 require field tests. These tests are based on the theory that the drilling rate is proportional to bit weight if bottom hole cleaning is adequate. When this proportionality curve, shown in Figure 5-1, at some point starts deviating from its increasing trend, the minimum required bottom hole cleaning energy to avoid bit balling at that level Flow ROP WOB Increasing ROP ho In le cre hy as dr in au g l ic bo en tto m er gy of WOB is determined. WOB Figure 5-1: ROP vs. WOB for different bit hydraulic energy levels.
Each pump is defined with a maximum recommended pressure, pmax , and a maximum flow rate. The characteristics of the pump is presented in Chapter 2, and repeated in Figure 5-2 below. 1 Friction loss increases with depth Due to friction in the ever extending wellbore, the pump would at some stage reach its maximum available pressure during transmission of hydraulic effect through the circulation system. Previously it has been shown that the pump pressure is a mirror image of the pressure losses in the circulating system.
Drilling Fluid Engineering by P. Skalle