David Robertson's Dictionary of Human Rights, A PDF

By David Robertson

ISBN-10: 0203486889

ISBN-13: 9780203486887

ISBN-10: 185743207X

ISBN-13: 9781857432077

This reference paintings displays the becoming foreign situation over human rights. It presents reasons of the terminology, matters, organisations and legislation surrounding this emotive topic. A Dictionary of Human Rights beneficial properties: * over two hundred transparent and concise mini-essays * alphabetical association for ease of use This e-book is an important resource for someone drawn to or attached with human rights concerns.

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Extra info for Dictionary of Human Rights, A

Example text

In one of the classic cases of US jurisprudence, known as the Slaughterhouse case, a very strong minority voted to overthrow a state law setting up a monopoly in animal slaughtering, on the grounds that the right to labour as animal slaughterers on their own account was thus violated. Although the case in question was lost, this extensive definition of property proved to be extremely important in the development of the US concept of substantive due process. The right to choose and exercise any trade or profession, subject only to regulation in the public interest (for example, licensing of doctors or lawyers by professional bodies), is a prime example of how a right can be simultaneously an economic interest right and a personal development right, with inevitable problems for its justification and definition.

This era has now largely passed with the enactment of the Human Rights Act (1998), making the UK, like most of the EU, covered by incorporation into the European Convention. The problem arising from the form of rights-protection relying on judicial interpretation is that if the rights are contained in a document of lower legal status than a written constitution, then a subsequently-elected parliament may constitutionally repeal them. Bill of Rights (UK) The full name for the British Bill of Rights is the ‘Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown’, which was passed by Parliament in 1689.

Some such constitutional restraints go further and limit forms of action between one citizen and another which might otherwise be illegal. So while property laws usually allow a landowner freedom to sell or refuse to sell as he wishes, there may be restrictions on discrimination such that someone wanting to sell a house cannot refuse to sell it to a legitimate would-be-purchaser because of, for example, the colour of his or her skin. This, technically known as horizontal effect, is one of the more controversial issues in modern constitutional thought, and is central to the whole question of how pervasively rights doctrines may be allowed to affect relations between citizens and between the state and its citizens.

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Dictionary of Human Rights, A by David Robertson

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