New PDF release: Crystal-Field Engineering of Solid-State Laser Materials
By Brian Henderson, Ralph H. Bartram
This ebook examines the underlying technological know-how and layout of laser fabrics. It emphasizes the foundations of crystal-field engineering and discusses the elemental actual recommendations that verify laser achieve and nonlinear frequency conversion in optical crystals. Henderson and Bartram enhance the predictive services of crystal-field engineering to teach how amendment of the symmetry and composition of optical facilities can increase laser functionality. additionally they speak about functions of the rules of crystal-field engineering to a number of optical crystals on the subject of the performances of laser units. This e-book can be of substantial curiosity to actual, chemical and fabric scientists and to engineers excited by the technological know-how and know-how of strong country lasers.
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Additional info for Crystal-Field Engineering of Solid-State Laser Materials
1962), (1963), (1964), (1966a,b)]. Anion vacancy colour centres also provide for tunable laser action in numerous ionic crystals, and such near-infrared lasers were commercially exploited from ca 1974 onwards [Mollenauer (1987) (1992)]. There are many structural variations of these laser-active colour centres, some more stable than others. Colour centre lasers usually require cryogenic temperatures for efficient and stable operation. An example of CW operation of an F^-like centre laser in NaCl is shown in Fig.
The transformation, R, in Eq. 11) can be viewed alternatively as an inverse rotation of the coordinate axes which alters the Cartesian components of afixedvector, r. A corresponding interpretation then applies for the operators OR, and even for the symmetry operations which leave the appearance of an object invariant. Labeling of symmetry elements by the rotations of the coordinate axes rather than those of the object itself alters the appearance of the multiplication table. The difference is only semantic, however, since isomorphism ensures preservation of irreducible representations and characters.
6 eV, respectively, above the ground state. This energy is transferred from excited He atoms to the n = 2 and n = 3 levels of Ne. 15 |xm and 3s->2p transitions at 633 nm all sustain laser action. 5 to 20 mW of typical power output. As such it is not used to pump other laser systems, although it is a useful spectroscopic source for use with red absorbers. Other inert gas lasers such as the Ar + and Kr + lasers are used to pump solid state gain media. These inert gas lasers are also discharge excited to give from hundreds of milliwatts to tens of watts of CW oscillation at various wavelengths.
Crystal-Field Engineering of Solid-State Laser Materials by Brian Henderson, Ralph H. Bartram