New PDF release: Cmos Logic Circuit Design
By John P. Uyemura
CMOS common sense Circuit layout is an up to date therapy of the research and layout of CMOS built-in electronic common sense circuits. it's a self- contained remedy that covers all the very important electronic circuit layout kinds present in smooth CMOS chips. Introductory chapters on MOSFET physics and CMOS fabrication give you the heritage wanted for an outstanding knowing of the circuit layout strategies within the rest of the booklet. Static CMOS common sense layout is given an in-depth therapy which covers either the research and layout of those different types of circuits. Emphasis is on examining circuits to appreciate the connection among the layout and function in an built-in setting. Analytic versions and their software are provided to supply a uniform base for the layout philosophy built within the examine. Dynamic circuit ideas similar to cost sharing and cost leakage are offered intimately after which utilized to dynamic common sense households comparable to domino cascades, self-resetting good judgment, and dynamic single-phase designs. Differential good judgment households are given a complete bankruptcy that discusses CVSL, CPL, and comparable layout kinds. Chip concerns corresponding to interconnect modeling, crosstalk, and input/output circuits around out the assurance. CMOS common sense Circuit layout offers the reader with a chance to work out the sphere in a unified demeanour that emphasizes fixing layout difficulties utilizing a few of the good judgment types to be had in CMOS. CMOS common sense Circuit layout is designed for use as either a textbook (either within the lecture room or for self-study) and as a reference for the VLSI chip dressmaker.
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The flatband voltage is and the surface potential is The bulk charge term contributes a value of Finally, the ion implantation step increases the threshold voltage by an amount Basic MOSFET Characteristics 9 Combining terms gives the threshold voltage as or Note that the ion implant step is required to produce a positive threshold voltage in this example. The threshold adjustment ion implant dose can be varied to give different working values of the threshold voltage. 2 Body Bias Let us now examine the threshold voltage of a MOSFET.
If a donor ion implant is used, the threshold voltage is made more negative and the minus sign “ - ” must be used. Once the gate voltage exceeds the threshold voltage, the electron inversion charge density may be approximated by since represents the net voltage over that needed to create the inversion layer. An obvious result of this analysis is that the amount of mobile electron charge can be increased by increasing the gate voltage. 1 Threshold Voltage Calculation Consider an n-channel MOS system that is characterized by and An ntype poly gate is used with The fixed oxide charge is approximated as and is the dominant oxide charge term, and the acceptor ion implant dose is assumed to be To determine the threshold voltage, we will first calculate the value of from which gives F/cm.
12. Consider the differential segment dy of the channel. Since this element has a simple rectangular shape with the current flow length of dy , the resistance is Current-Voltage Characteristics 13 where is the conductivity of the region, and is the cross-sectional area (perpendicular to the direction of current flow. Now note that the width of the channel is W, which allows us to write the areas as with being the thickness of the channel inversion layer at that point. Also, the conductivity is given by where is the electron surface mobility in units of and is the electron density in the channel in units of Combining these relations allows us to write the denominator as where the second line follows by noting the definition of the inversion charge density is equivalent to since that is the electron charge density in units of Now, note that the current through the segment is The voltage dV across a differential segment dy of the channel is given by or where the negative sign is required because the current is flowing in the -y direction.
Cmos Logic Circuit Design by John P. Uyemura