W Hoyle, Mike Lancaster's Clean technology for the manufacture of speciality chemicals PDF

By W Hoyle, Mike Lancaster

ISBN-10: 0854048855

ISBN-13: 9780854048854

Generating huge amounts of waste is not just environmentally unacceptable, it's also now not manageable in monetary phrases. The chemical undefined, really the speciality and prescription drugs sectors, is turning into more and more conscious of the benefits linked to fresh know-how, rather by way of aggressive virtue and environmental merits.

Bringing jointly an realizing of the thoughts and values of unpolluted expertise through the use of case reviews from a few prime eu nations, this e-book presents an perception into matters resembling catalysis; procedure intensification; and the way to degree the "green" worth of a technique. It additionally highlights the position performed by way of either the chemical and chemical engineering disciplines within the improvement of cleanser techniques.

Clean know-how for the Manufacture of Speciality chemical substances will turn out helpful interpreting for method improvement chemists and engineers, fairly these within the specialities and prescription drugs sectors, and also will be a tremendous resource of educating fabric for the starting to be variety of fresh know-how chemistry classes.

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Amines and poly(ethyleneglyco1) in the reaction. The results are reported in Table 2. No reaction took place with hydrogen peroxide and tri-n-butylamine in the absence of sodium molybdate. The observation that tri-n-butylamine is an effective catalyst led us to evaluate the reaction with a range of structurally different amines. The results are reported in Table 3. All the thioethers are liquids at 60°C with the exception of dibenzothiophene. The reactions were performed neat, except dibenzothiophene was reacted in toluene.

56 Clean Technologyfor the Manufacture of Speciality Chemicals Table 2 Recycled Ytterbium(I1I) Trijlate for the Nitration of m-Xylenea Run 1 2 3 4 Conversion (%)b 89 81 90 88 Mass of Catalyst (mg)C 190 (>loo) 152 (82) 127 (68) 115 (62) a All runs performed with 3 mmol rn-xylene, 10 mol% ytterbium triflate (run 1 ) and 1 equivalent of 69% nitric acid in refluxing 1,2-dichloroethane ( 5 ml) for 5 h; h Determined by GC analysis. The isomeric ratio of 4- and 2-nitroxylene was unchanged throughout (85: 15 respectively); c Mass of ytterbium(II1) triflate recovered from each run.

Obviously this ratio is quite large and also is of great influence in the choice of the reactor. Summarising, we have to deal with potential limitations in the field of heat transfer, mass transfer, and fluid mechanics. e. temperature and pressure. By increasing temperature the intrinsic reaction rate will increase due to the rise of the reaction rate constant. By increasing pressure, the solubility of the gaseous reactant will increase resulting in a higher concentration in the liquid. A pressure rise however is not always recommended when dealing with potential explosive components.

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Clean technology for the manufacture of speciality chemicals by W Hoyle, Mike Lancaster


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