Get Basics of Boiler and HRSG Design PDF
By Brad Buecker
A great primer for strength plant pros who've to put on many hats and want a pragmatic rationalization of the layout and simple operation of traditional steam producing boilers and HRSGs with no need to go through technical fabric. Buecker makes use of anecdotes and humor to brighten up what could rather be thought of a dry topic. No different booklet explains the basics of boilers and HRSGs with no going into technical depths.
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City ordinances prevent the burning of leaves and tree limbs within city limits, but a CFB would allow the city to derive an energy benefit from this free (transportation and collection labor excluded) biomass. Disadvantages of fluidized bed combustion Like all technologies, fluidized bed combustion is not foolproof. Of prime concern is the corrosive character of the ash, especially when it is accelerated to high speed in the cyclone. Also, part of the furnace is lined with refractory––a material susceptible to thermal stress–that may spall off if the unit is frequently cycled.
In a properly designed steam generator, however, the boiling process is uniform and is known as nucleate boiling. Upsets in burner operation, rapid load increases, poor design, and other factors will affect the boiling process and may induce a “departure from nucleate boiling” (DNB) that alters the cooling effects of the boiler water. As Figure A1-2 illustrates, DNB reduces heat transfer to the boiler water. This in turn places the tubes in the affected areas under higher temperatures than originally designed.
The basic reactions that occur between limestone and SO2 are as follows: CaCO3 + heat ➝ CaO + CO2 ➝ Buecker Ch2 CaO + SO2 + 1/ O2 ➝ CaSO4 + heat 2 The first reaction absorbs heat (around 766 Btu/lb, 1,782 KJ/kg of CaCO3 injected) and the second gives off heat (around 6,733 Btu/lb, 15,660 KJ/kg of sulfur removed). Theoretically, one equivalent amount of calcium reacts with one equivalent of SO2 but as with all chemical processes, 100% efficiency is virtually impossible to achieve. Factors that influence the limestone-SO2 reaction include the kinetics of sorbent particle-SO2 interaction and the physical properties of the particles themselves.
Basics of Boiler and HRSG Design by Brad Buecker