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By Sammy C. Letema
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Yellow or brown water, (2) excreta, (3) grey water, (4) black water, (5) domestic, and (6) combined. d. End-user participation: participatory versus technocratic The assessment scales for the participatory-technocratic dimension are: 1. end-user participation in initiation, financing, construction and operation and maintenance; 2. end-user participation in initiation, financing and operation and maintenance, with construction by artisans; 3. end-user participation in resource mobilisation and selection of utility operators; 4.
On the one hand, it is argued that it leads to better access to services with aid of local experts, promote flexible and differentiated services delivery, secure long-term operation and maintenance sustainability, stimulate demand, ensure accountability, build consensus, make wise decisions, build local capacity and instigate technical and commercial innovations (Randolph, 2004; Murray & Ray, 2010; Jaglin, 2002; Odolon, 1998; Hegger & Van Vliet, 2010). On the other hand, it is argued that participation transfers costs from mandated utility agencies to low-income household, produces systems that are unstable, can create inequalities, and can lock disadvantaged urban settlements into sub-standard systems that are very difficult to upgrade (Jaglin, 2002).
Sanitary mixtures, when framed on paradigms, can be conventional (modern), traditional (alternative) or mixed (hybrid). Institutional pluralism and multimodal sanitary systems call for rebalancing the existing socio-technical configurations so as to merge technical infrastructures with spatial structures and institutional arrangements. Such rebalancing calls firstly, for assessing sanitary dimensions in order to know which system can merge with which service provider, at what scale and spatial structure, and under which management and participation arrangement.
Assessing Sanitary Mixtures in East African Cities by Sammy C. Letema