Applied mineralogy in the mining industry - download pdf or read online
By William Petruk
Ideas of acting utilized mineralogy investigations, and purposes and functions of lately constructed tools for measuring mineral homes are explored during this booklet meant for training utilized mineralogists, scholars in mineralogy and metallurgy, and mineral processing engineers. the advantages of utilized mineralogy are provided by utilizing in-depth utilized mineralogy stories on base steel ores, gold ores, porphyry copper ores, iron ores and business minerals as examples. The bankruptcy on base steel ores contains a dialogue at the results of liberation, particle sizes and surfaces coatings of Pb, Cu, Fe, Ca and So
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The conventional high-vacuum SEM, however, requires a coating, usually carbon, on the polished surface of the sample. If the sample needs to be re-observed under the optical microscope, the coating needs to be removed. A coating is not required when using the low-vacuum SEM and the sample can be easily re-examined by optical microscopy. The optical microscope, conventional high-vacuum SEM and low-vacuum SEM are used routinely in the Process Mineralogy Laboratory at CANMET. 5. ELECTRON MICROPROBE (MP) The electron microprobe (MP) has played a major role in mineralogy, since it was developed in the late 1950's.
The technique requires a library of relative mtensity ratios between the minerals and corundum, but established ratios are transferrable between XRD units. g. the peak intensity of corundum). All the minerals in the sample need to be identified and the results are normalized to 100 %. Initially only the strongest lines were compared, subsequently the 3 strongest lines were used, and m 1994 a technique was developed at CANMET to use the entire XRD pattern. The entire XRD pattern for each mmeral provided a better comparison and minimized preferred orientation (Szymanski and Petruk, 1994).
In contrast, weakly bonded minerals tend to break along grain boundaries (preferential breakage). Grain boundary irregularities provide a measure of the extent of intergrowth of minerals and, in turn, of bond strength between the grams. In particular, sinuous grain boundaries show strong intergrowths and probably a strong bond, whereas straight grain boundaries show no mtergrowths and probably a weak bond. Grain boundary irregularities can be measured with an image analyser that has a binary thinning routine or its equivalent.
Applied mineralogy in the mining industry by William Petruk