Applied Dairy Microbiology by Elmer H. Marth, James Steele PDF
By Elmer H. Marth, James Steele
This completely revised and up-to-date reference/text offers entire insurance of the most recent advancements and medical advances in dairy microbiology. It emphasizes probiotics, fermented dairy items, affliction prevention, and public well-being and regulatory regulate criteria for dairy foods.Additionally, utilized Dairy Microbiology, moment variation offers new chapters at the use, metabolism, and genetics of starter cultures, together with contemporary facts on isolation and enumeration of lactic acid micro organism.
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Extra info for Applied Dairy Microbiology
Polioencephalomalacia Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), also known as cerebrocortical necrosis, is an acute toxicosis that causes destruction of tissues of the central nervous system. It manifests itself in the form of lethargy and sometimes blindness that progress to muscular tremors and coma, with death following within a few days. PEM has been attributed to a thiamin deficiency that may result from elevated levels of thiaminases. More recent data indicate that, in many instances, the condition results from conversion of ingested sulfates to highly toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Gould, 1998) (see Sec.
Thus, ruminal methanogenesis, which is viewed unfavorably by nutritionists as a loss of ϳ8% of the metabolizable energy of the feed, in fact has an important thermodynamic function that permits an adequate rate and extent of carbohydrate fermentation. Representatives of another group of bacteria, the carbon dioxide–reducing homoacetogens, have been isolated from the rumen and appear to be present at low cell densities. Like the methanogens, these eubacteria can reduce carbon dioxide with H2, but according to the stoichiometry 4H2 ϩ 2CO2 → CH3COOH ϩ 2H2O (2) 28 Weimer The homoacetogens have attracted interest as potential competitors of the methanogens in that they could, in principle, remove fermentatively produced H2 while at the same time producing acetic acid, an energy source and biosynthetic precursor that the ruminant is well equipped to use (Mackie and Bryant, 1994).
Alternative means of controlling the microbes—either reducing their proteolytic activity or increasing microbial growth yield—have shown little promise to this point. Controlling the ratios of fermentation endproducts is already exploited in the beef industry through the use of monensin and other ionophores. These compounds are more effective against gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria. Because these groups contain some of the more notable producers of acetate and propionate, respectively, treatment with monensin has several effects, including increasing ruminal propionate and decreasing ruminal acetate and the acetate/ propionate ratio.
Applied Dairy Microbiology by Elmer H. Marth, James Steele