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By Andrew Putnis

ISBN-10: 0521429471

ISBN-13: 9780521429474

The topic of mineralogy has moved clear of the systematic therapy of mineral teams towards the research of the habit of minerals in line with geological techniques. it's important that we comprehend the physics and chemistry of minerals as this reaction mostly includes structural and chemical adjustments inside person minerals in addition to reactions among minerals. this can be the 1st textual content to supply an creation to fashionable mineralogy for undergraduate scholars. the most, and infrequently complicated, suggestions required to appreciate minerals and the tactics that happen inside of them are provided in a simple to keep on with demeanour with none complicated mathematical therapy. The ebook offers with solid-state alterations in minerals, which occur according to adjustments in temperature and strain, in addition to introducing the elemental crystallography, physics and chemistry had to comprehend those approaches. No wisdom of physics, chemistry and arithmetic past high-school point is believed.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Mineral Sciences

Example text

Thus {100} represents all of the planes equivalent to (100) by symmetry. In the cubic system {100} is the set_of planes (100), (TOO), (010), (0T0), (001) and (001). In the tetragonal system {100} would mean the set of four planes (100), (TOO), (010) and (OlO). 12 will show that the point group symmetry defines the number of planes in the set {hkl}. If we are only concerned about the orientation of a set of planes we choose the smallest indivisible set of integers h,kfl for the Miller indices. Thus since planes (200) are parallel to (100), the latter indices are used to describe their orientation.

E. between the poles 100 and 010. The fact that the normals to (100), (010) and (110) are co-planar means that their poles will plot on the same great circle (a great circle is one whose plane passes through the centre of the sphere), in this case the primitive great circle. In the same way, a plane (011) will project to a point between the poles 001 and 010, such that it lies at 45° to both. e. the pole 011 is not half-way between 001 and 010 although it is equally inclined to each). e. formed by cutting off all eight edges of the cube at 45° can be added to the stereogram in the same way.

Planes whose normals project into the upper hemisphere are represented by filled circles in the projection plane, and those whose normals project into the lower hemisphere are represented by open circles. In the simple case here the normals to the four vertical faces of the cube [(100), (010), (TOO) and (010)] are horizontal and hence each touches the sphere at the equator. This point becomes the pole. All vertical planes will obviously have horizontal normals which will have poles on this equatorial circle, usually called the primitive circle.

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An Introduction to Mineral Sciences by Andrew Putnis

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